Understanding Hypersensitivity Type 2

Home » Posts » Understanding Hypersensitivity Type 2

Hypersensitivity type 2, also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity, involves a misguided attack by the immune system on the body’s own cells. This reaction occurs when antibodies, normally produced to fight off pathogens. And mistakenly target healthy cells with proteins. And molecules on their surface that are erroneously as foreign. This mistaken identity and understanding Hypersensitivity Type 2 triggers a destructive immune response, leading to tissue damage and inflammation.

Understanding Hypersensitivity reactions type 2

Causes of Hypersensitivity Type 2:

  • Blood Transfusions: Incompatibility between blood types can occur when someone receives blood with antigens (proteins on red blood cells).
  • And that their immune system doesn’t recognize. This can trigger an attack on the transfused red blood cells.
  • Certain Medications: Some medications can bind to proteins on a person’s red blood cells, altering their surface.
  • nd causing the immune system to attack them.
  • Graves’ Disease: This autoimmune disorder involves the production of antibodies.
  • That target the thyroid gland, stimulating it to overproduce thyroid hormone.
  • Goodpasture’s Syndrome: This rare autoimmune disease affects the lungs and kidneys. Antd antibodies mistakenly attack proteins in the basement membrane (a thin layer supporting cells) of these organs.

The Misdirected Attack in Hypersensitivity Type 2:

  • Antibody Formation: During exposure to a foreign substance (in some cases, a drug) or a malfunction of the immune system antibodies are produced.
  • Mistaken Identity: In type 2 hypersensitivity, these antibodies mistakenly identify proteins on the body’s own cells as foreign.
  • Complement Activation: The antibodies bind to the proteins on healthy cells, often activating the complement system.
  • And a group of proteins that further promotes cell destruction.
  • Cell Damage and Inflammation: The combined attack by antibodies and the complement system damages the targeted cells.
  • Which leading to inflammation and tissue injury.

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Type 2:

Symptoms vary depending on the affected tissues. Here are some common examples:

  • Blood Transfusion Reactions: Fever, chills, weakness, shortness of breath and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells) may occurs.
  • Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia: Similar symptoms to blood transfusion reactions, occurring after taking certain medications.
  • Graves’ Disease: Weight loss, rapid heart rate, anxiety, tremors, and bulging eyes.
  • Goodpasture’s Syndrome: Coughing up blood, shortness of breath, blood in the urine and high blood pressure.

Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Type 2:

  • Blood Tests: Blood tests can help identify antibodies associated with specific types of hypersensitivity type 2 reactions.
  • Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT): This test detects antibodies bound to red blood cells, and aiding in diagnosing blood transfusion reactions and drug-induced hemolytic anemia.
  • Identifying and Avoiding Triggers: In cases like drug-induced reactions, the triggering medication is identified and avoided.
  • Immunosuppressive Medications: Medications suppress the immune system are used to manage autoimmune diseases like Graves’ disease.
  • Plasma Exchange or Dialysis: In severe cases, procedures to remove harmful antibodies from the blood may be necessary.

Conclusion:

Hypersensitivity type 2, though less common than other hypersensitivity reactions, can have serious consequences.  Understanding Hypersensitivity Type 2 and the causes, symptoms, and treatment options empowers individuals to work with healthcare professionals to manage this condition and protect their health.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563264/

How We Track Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance ?
How we Track Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance?
×

Enter Your Institute & Institute Address to get more benefits